Annex 5 National Accident Data - Accidents and Casualties by Location and Road Type

There are 6,780 kilo­me­tres of Trunk road (2.3% of all roads in Eng­land). Trunk roads ser­vice 130 bil­lion vehicle-km of traf­fic (30% of all motor­way and A-road traf­fic in England).

4.1 Acci­dents and casu­al­ties by road type

Trunk roads com­prise of motor­ways and All Pur­pose A-roads. A-roads can be built-up (speed limit 40mph or less) or non-built-up (speed lim­its of 50mph or more).

Of all acci­dents on Eng­lish Trunk roads:

  • 51.1% (7,677) were on motorways.
  • 48.9% (7,332) were on All Pur­pose Trunk A-roads -
  • 41.3% (6,203) were on non-built-up A-roads;
  • 7.5% (1,129) were on built-up A-roads;
  • 35.9% (5,393) were on dual carriageway2 A-roads
  • 12.8% (1,918) were on sin­gle car­riage­way A-roads

Table 4–1 gives the num­ber of acci­dents in 2005 by road type and acci­dent sever­ity. The per­cent­age KSI (also called the sever­ity ratio) is also given, which is the pro­por­tion of acci­dents on a par­tic­u­lar road type that are fatal or seri­ous. This shows that acci­dents on sin­gle car­riage­way or non built-up A-roads have the high­est sever­ity and acci­dents on built-up A-roads have the lowest.

Table 4–2 gives the same infor­ma­tion for casualties.

Table 4–1: Num­ber of acci­dents by road type and acci­dent sever­ity, 2005

 Road class

Type

Fatal

Seri­ous

Slight

Total

% KSI

Motor­ways

All

155

729

6,793

7,677

11.5%

All

197

990

6,145

7,332

16.2%

Built-up

10

113

1,006

1,129

10.9%

A-roads

Non built-up

187

877

5,139

6,203

17.2%

Dual car­riage­way2

127

678

4588

5,393

14.9%

Sin­gle carriageway

69

310

1,539

1,918

19.8%

Table 4–2: Num­ber of casu­al­ties by road type and casu­alty injury, 2005

 Road class

Type

killed

Seri­ously injured

Slightly injured

Total

% KSI

Motor­ways

All

182

934

11,271

12,387

9.0%

All

226

1,267

9,781

11,274

13.2%

Built-up

11

127

1,429

1,567

8.8%

A-roads

Non built-up

215

1,140

8,352

9,707

14.0%

Dual car­riage­way2

1,477

844

7,133

8,124

12.2%

Sin­gle carriageway

78

421

2,616

3,115

16.0%

2 Fig­ures for dual car­riage­ways include acci­dents on round­abouts, one-way streets and slip roads

4.2 Casu­alty rates and acci­dent rates

Fig­ure 4–1 shows the num­ber of casu­al­ties, length, traf­fic and like­li­hood of being injured on motor­ways, non built-up and built-up A-roads. The casu­alty rate is the num­ber of casu­al­ties per vehicle-km trav­elled, oth­er­wise described as the like­li­hood of an indi­vid­ual being injured.

Although motor­ways have the great­est num­ber of casu­al­ties and the great­est traf­fic (Fig­ures (a) and ©), their casu­alty rate is the low­est, and motor­ways are rel­a­tively safer per vehicle-km trav­elled, as shown in Fig­ures (d) and (e). The built-up A-roads, which account for a small pro­por­tion of the net­work, have a smaller num­ber of casu­al­ties, but have the high­est casu­alty rates.

Fig­ure 4–1: Eng­lish Trunk roads and casu­al­ties, 2005

(a) Num­ber of casualties

IMAGE

(b) Length (km)

IMAGE

© Traf­fic (108 vehicle-km)

IMAGE

(d) Like­li­hood of being injured

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(e) Like­li­hood of being killed or seri­ously injured

IMAGE

4.3 Casu­alty trends by injury and road class

Table 4–3 and Table 4–4 show the num­ber of casu­al­ties and casu­alty rates for motor­ways and trunk A-roads. The casu­al­ties on A-roads have shown the great­est reduc­tion since the base­line. On motor­ways until 2003 there was a rise in the num­ber of fatal­i­ties, in 2004 the level decreased to just below the base­line fig­ure, but in 2005, the fatal­i­ties increased 18.5% from the base­line figure.

Table 4–3: Motor­way casu­al­ties and rates by year

1994–1998
average

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2005 % change
from baseline

Killed

154

166

176

194

196

147

182

+18.5%

Seri­ously injured

1,176

1,236

1,269

1170

1,106

1,037

934

–20.6%

KSI

1,330

1,402

1,445

1,364

1,302

1,184

1,116

–16.1%

Slightly injured

10,087

12,597

11,794

11,45

11,326

11,681

11,271

+11.7%

All casu­al­ties

11,417

13,999

1,239

12,829

12,628

12,865

12,387

+8.5%

Traf­fic (108 vehicle-km)

724

785

811

826

828

857

864

19.3%

Killed rate

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.17

0.21

–0.7%

Seri­ous rate

1.63

1.57

1.56

1.42

1.34

1.21

1.08

–33.4%

KSI rate

1.84

1.79

1.78

1.65

1.57

1.38

1.29

–29.7%

Slight rate

13.9

16.0

14.5

13.9

13.7

13.6

1.1

–6.3%

All casu­al­ties rate

15.7

17.8

16.3

15.5

15.3

15.0

14.3

 –9.1%

Casu­alty rate mea­sured in casu­al­ties per 108vehicle-km.

Table 4–4: A-road casu­al­ties and rates by year

1994–1998
average

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2005 % change
from baseline

Killed

263

264

242

263

248

220

226

–13.9%

Seri­ously injured

1,775

1,491

1,553

1,487

1,381

1,324

1,267

–28.6%

KSI

2,038

1,755

1,795

1,750

1,629

1,544

1,493

–26.7%

Slightly injured

10,043

10,458597

10,530

10,607

10,162

10,650

9,781

–2.6%

All casu­al­ties

12,081

12,213

12,325

12,357

11,791

12,194

11,274

–6.7%

Traf­fic (108 vehicle-km)

369

402

418

426

436

439

442

+20.2%

Killed rate

0.71

0.66

0.58

0.62

0.57

0.50

0.51

–28.4%

Seri­ous rate

4.83

3.71

3.7

3.48

3.17

3.02

2.86

–40.6%

KSI rate

5.54

4.36

4.30

4.10

3.74

3.52

3.38

–39.0%

Slight rate

27.2

26.0

25.2

24.9

23.3

24.3

22.1

–18.9%

All casu­al­ties rate

32.7

30.4

29.5

29.0

27.1

27.8

25.5

 –22.3%

Casu­alty rate mea­sured in casu­al­ties per 108vehicle-km.

The trends in the casu­alty rates are illus­trated in Error! Not a valid book­mark self-reference. and Fig­ure 4–3.

Fig­ure 4–2: Killed and seri­ous casu­alty rates by road class 1994–2005

IMAGE

Fig­ure 4–3: Casu­alty rates by injury and road class rel­a­tive to 1994–98 average

IMAGE

4.4 Acci­dent types by road class

4.4.1 Motor­ways

Many of the dif­fer­ences between the types of acci­dents on motor­ways and Trunk A-roads arise largely because of unique char­ac­ter­is­tics of motor­ways (e.g. high design stan­dards, fewer junc­tions, more hard shoul­ders etc.), dif­fer­ences in traf­fic vol­umes, vehi­cle mileage, and the smaller speed dif­fer­en­tials between road users (largely because pedes­tri­ans and pedal cyclists are pro­hib­ited from using motorways).

All these fac­tors con­tribute to motor­ways hav­ing lower casu­alty sever­i­ties and casu­alty rates than A-roads, fewer junc­tion acci­dents3 and pedes­trian acci­dents than on A-roads, but more multi-vehicle4 acci­dents and acci­dents at road­works than on A-roads. Com­par­ing the vehi­cles involved in motor­way acci­dents with the vehi­cles in A-road acci­dents, vehi­cles in motor­way acci­dents were more likely to be HGVs, to be ‘chang­ing lane’, to leave the car­riage­way and hit a crash bar­rier off the car­riage­way, and less likely to be ‘turn­ing right’ or ‘going ahead left or right bend’.

3 Note that a STATS19 junc­tion acci­dent is one occur­ring at or within 20m of a junc­tion. Vehi­cle manoeu­vres asso­ci­ated with leav­ing or join­ing motor­ways mainly take place much fur­ther than 20m from the junc­tion. Thus, many motor­way acci­dents not clas­si­fied as occur­ring at a junc­tion may have been junction-related.
4 Involv­ing 3 or more vehicles.

4.4.2 Non-built-up and built-up A-roads

41.3% of fatal­i­ties on the whole Trunk net­work were on non-built-up A-roads. Com­par­ing built-up and non-built-up A-roads, total casu­alty rates were much higher on built-up A-roads than on non-built-up A-roads but built-up fatal­ity rates were sim­i­lar to non-built-up ones. On non-built-up roads the pre­dom­i­nant acci­dent types sug­gested high speeds (involv­ing the faster manoeu­vres, skid­ding etc), which lead to high sever­i­ties. The built-up roads had the high­est pro­por­tions of vul­ner­a­ble road user casu­al­ties (pedes­tri­ans, cyclists and eques­tri­ans) and, prob­a­bly, the high­est amount of vul­ner­a­ble road user traf­fic, which is dif­fi­cult to measure.

Acci­dents on non-built-up roads were more likely to result in fatal or seri­ous injuries, to involve 3 or more vehi­cles, and to take place away from junc­tions2. Acci­dents on non-built-up roads were also more likely to involve vehi­cles that were over­tak­ing, were HGVs, that left the car­riage­way, and that skid­ded. Acci­dents on built-up roads were more likely to involve pedes­tri­ans or pedal cycles and for vehi­cles to be ‘wait­ing to go ahead’.

4.4.3 Dual and sin­gle car­riage­way A-roads

35.8% of fatal­i­ties on the whole Trunk net­work were on dual car­riage­way A-roads. The dif­fer­ent design stan­dards of these roads give dif­fer­ent acci­dent characteristics.

Com­par­ing dual and sin­gle car­riage­ways, sin­gle car­riage­way acci­dents tend to be more severe; 16.0% of casu­al­ties on sin­gle car­riage­ways were killed or seri­ously injured com­pared with 12.1% on dual car­riage­ways. Sin­gle vehi­cle acci­dents are more likely on dual car­riage­ways than on sin­gle carriageways.

Vehi­cles involved in acci­dents on sin­gle car­riage­ways were more likely to be turn­ing right and wait­ing to turn right, over­tak­ing or going ahead — bend, or to have first point of impact “front” or “off­side” than vehi­cles involved in acci­dents on dual carriageways.

Vehi­cles involved in dual car­riage­ways were more likely to be chang­ing lane, to have first point of impact “back” or “near­side”, or hit an object off the car­riage­way than vehi­cles involved in acci­dents on sin­gle car­riage­ways. Dri­vers aged 70 and over were more com­mon in acci­dents on sin­gle carriageways.

4.5 Acci­dent conditions

4.5.1 Hard shoul­der and lay-by accidents

Table 4–5 shows the num­ber of acci­dents which involved a vehi­cle on, enter­ing or leav­ing a lay-by or hard shoul­der for the dif­fer­ent road types. In gen­eral, this means lay-bys on A-roads and hard shoul­ders on motor­ways, although there will be some excep­tions. On motor­ways, 1.7% of acci­dents involved a vehi­cle on, enter­ing or leav­ing the hard shoul­der, and 31% of these were fatal or serious.

Table 4–5: Hard shoul­der and lay-by acci­dents, 2005

Acci­dents involv­ing a vehi­cle on, enter­ing
or leav­ing lay-by or hard shoulder

 Road class

Type

Fatal

Seri­ous

Slight

Total

% of road type accidents

Motor­ways

All

12

28

87

127

1.7%

A-roads

All

9

21

91

119

1.6%

A-roads

Built-up

1

4

5

0.4%

A-roads

Non built-up

9

20

87

114

1.8%

A-roads

Dual car­riage­way

8

16

75

99

1.8%

A-roads

Sin­gle carriageway

1

5

16

22

1.1%

 Total

 21

 49

 178

 248

1.7%

More detail on hard shoul­der acci­dents is given in Appen­dix E.3.

4.5.2 Acci­dents at roadworks

Table 4–6 shows the num­ber of acci­dents that were recorded with road­works present.
Over­all, 3.7% of acci­dents in 2005 occurred at road­work sites.

Table 4–6: Road­works acci­dents, 2005

 Road class

Type

Fatal

Seri­ous

Slight

Total

% of road type accidents

Motor­ways

All

9

20

321

350

4.6%

All

4

20

186

210

2.9%

Built-up

1

9

54

64

5.7%

A-roads

Non built-up

3

11

132

146

2.4%

Dual car­riage­way

4

13

143

160

3.0%

Sin­gle carriageway

0

7

42

49

2.6%

 Total

13

40

507

560

3.7%

More detail on acci­dents at road­works is given in Appen­dix E.2.

4.6 Sum­mary

  • Half of acci­dents on trunk roads occurred on motorways.
  • Motor­ways carry the most traffic.
  • The acci­dent sever­ity ratio is high­est for non built-up A-roads and sin­gle car­riage­way A-roads
  • Motor­ways have the low­est casu­alty rate (per vehi­cle km).
  • The num­ber of KSI casu­al­ties on A-roads has reduced more than on motorways
  • On motor­ways, the num­ber of fatal­i­ties rose from the base­line (154) to 196 in 2003, reduced in 2004, but increased to 182 in 2005, 18.5% above the baseline
  • On motor­ways, the num­ber of seri­ous injuries has reduced steadily from the base­line to give a reduc­tion of 21% from the baseline.
  • On A-roads, the num­bers of fatal­i­ties and seri­ously injured have reduced steadily from the base­line by 14% and 29% respectively.
  • The casu­alty rates have reduced more on A-roads than on motorways.